E. coli … now I have your attention.

Greetings Carnivores,

Food safety is the ‘Hot Button’ topic that seems to make sensational headlines somewhere around the world every week. Entire food production systems are frequently suspended or closed completely. The issue of food safety is always front and centre but, it’s important to note it’s NOT always leveled directly at the Meat industry.

In the early 2000’s a number of people in Walkerton Ontario (Canada) became ill and died. When the dust settled, the preliminary investigation revealed the outbreak was due to contaminated city water and NOT infected meat. A collective chill went down the spine of everyone who ever reached for a glass of tap water.

Mad Cow, Listeriosis, Salmonella, Botulism, E. coli, undercooked Poultry, raw eggs, mishandled Seafood, unwashed fruits and vegetables and NOW OUR WATER???

More recently, the XL meat processing plant in Brooks Alberta was the site of the largest meat recall in Canadian history, affecting almost every single retailer large and small, from coast to coast and abroad. The implications were so far reaching, meat was recalled from the four corners of the globe and resulted in the complete closure and ultimate sale of the facility.

Almost makes you afraid to get out of bed.

The purpose for this post is not to strike fear into your hearts but, to hopefully shed some light on this most difficult subject. Education is key to staying healthy and that’s hopefully where I can help.

Of all the food borne illnesses (and there are MANY), today I want to focus on Escherichia coli (E. coli)

What’s important to note here is that this particular type of bacteria naturally occurs in the digestive tracts of humans as well as cattle, poultry and other animals. And for the most part, it’s harmless. Some varieties of this bug on the other hand, can carry genes that allow them to cause disease. The truly nasty variation, known as E. coli 0157; H7 can cause severe stomach cramps, hemorrhagic diarrhea, vomiting and in some cases, kidney failure and even death.

E. coli is a fecal contamination which is easily spread to plants and vegetables through improperly composted manure and water run-off from cattle pastures.  Proper washing of all fruits and veggies is as essential as a good hand washing regimen.

The meat industry however, must be extra vigilant because processing is a common point of contamination during slaughtering. Fecal matter present on the hide at the time of harvesting and the contents of the intestines could potentially mix with the meat. This warm, moist environment then becomes an incubator. This is the reason ground meat is SO susceptible to this type of contamination. If any bacteria are present on the surface of the meat, it then becomes mixed throughout the entire contents of the grind.  Additionally, meat from MANY different animals are ground together resulting in the possibility ONE single animal could contaminate an entire ‘run’ during a shift. The line in a slaughterhouse is routinely shut down for cleaning but, it’s easy to see how one shift could potentially produce thousands and thousands of pounds of contaminated ground beef without knowing.

This is why it’s so vitally important to properly cook your ground meat. Cooking all ground beef and hamburgers thoroughly and, using a good digital read thermometer, will eliminate the organism. I know some of you like to eat your burgers medium but … I caution you … unless you grind it yourself, you’re rolling the illness dice.

Ground beef should always be cooked until a thermometer inserted into several parts of the patty, including the thickest part, reads at least 72 °C (162 °F).

Small tip when cooking ground beef patties: press your thumb into the middle of the patty BEFORE cooking. This will help when the patty swells up and ’rounds’ in the middle and … NEVER press down on the patty!!! That just squeezes all the wonderful juices out.

Similarly, steaks and roasts ‘could’ potentially be contaminated on the surface as well but, any outside contamination would be killed during the cooking process.

The meat industry is adopting preventative measures that include trying to reduce the number of cattle that carry the E. coli 0157; H7 bacteria through vaccines, as well as introducing measures that include the careful removal of the intestines AND a system of steam cleaning, vacuuming and using organic acid sprays on the carcasses BEFORE processing, in an effort to eliminate fecal contamination on the hide.

Keep in mind people … you need to do your part as well. When preparing meat ALWAYS be vigilant when handling cooked and raw products. The two should never be in contact with each other. Clean and sanitize work surfaces paying particular attention to cutting boards and countertops. When using knives or other utensils they must be washed, rinsed and sanitized between uses, paying particular attention to (again) cooked vs. raw product.  And always keep your food out of the temperature danger zone between 4 °C (40 °F) to 60 °C (140 °F) where bacteria can grow quickly. Refrigerate, cook or freeze where and when necessary.

Another thing to keep in mind at this time of the year: unpasteurized fruit juices and ciders are commonly sold through roadside farm stands and Fall Fairs and should be avoided unless first heat treated to kill any possibly harmful bacteria that may be present. The young and elderly are particularly at risk of potentially serious food borne illness from consuming these products.

Ok so, now that I have completely ‘freaked’ you out, you need to know that the meat industry is one of the safest, most regulated, industries and the chance of becoming ill is slim.

BUT bad things CAN and DO happen so, let’s do everything we can to educate ourselves, follow good cleanliness practices including frequent hand washing and always, always cook things properly and observe the temperature ‘danger zone’.

In closing I’d like to stand on a soapbox for a moment, and ask a favour.

I always close my posts with the following paragraph: Until next time Carnivores, stay hungry and as usual, please follow my posts on Twitter @DougieDee and like and share them on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/carnivoreconfidential.

I’ve been doing this for almost a year now and, been blessed with a great number of folks who have commented and ‘liked’ what I’ve written but … I’d LOVE to hear from MORE of you !! 🙂

If you enjoy Carnivore Confidential, may I encourage you to please, please consider ‘subscribing’ by simply initiating a WordPress username for yourselves. It only takes a moment of your time and it would mean so much to me to hear from more of you.  If you look at the top of the Carnivore Confidential page you ‘should’ see the word ‘Follow’ … click on that word and it should change to the word ‘Following’ and take you a sign in page for WordPress … add a username and voila … you’ll begin getting email notices every time I post something new. I can see on my ‘Stats’ page that I have folks from ALL over the world reading the posts I write and… I want to hear from YOU! By launching a WordPress username for yourselves, you’ll get notices in your inbox, every time I write a new post and you won’t miss out on a thing.

WordPress is an EXCELLENT site with an iron clad privacy policy and you’ll never get bombarded with unwanted spam or other crap. PROMISE!

Thanks for reading and following and … please come back and comment, ‘like’ and follow my posts though WordPress. I will do my very best to continue to bring you informative, educational and hopefully well written, witty dialogue.

I REALLY appreciate your support.

Stay hungry Carnivores  🙂 🙂

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Ode to Fall … how I love thee!!

Greetings Carnivores,

The skies are grey, change is in the air. I can feel it, see it, taste it. My house, high on a hill is bearing witness to the trees beyond the lake, turning as I write.

Just a few short weeks from now, when the night time temps dip, the trees will blossom with beautiful hues of Autumn Red, fading to Orange, Gold and Yellow.

Today is nasty in a wonderful Fall sort of way. It’s raining and a bit chilly.

I REALLY DO hate to see the Summer days grow short but … I SOOOO love the Fall. Bright sunshine and cool nights. NO BUGS to spoil any outside leisure activities and, those beautiful colours in the trees.

According to Wikipedia, An “Ode”  is elaborately praising or glorifying an event, describing nature intellectually as well as emotionally.

And so, this is my Ode to Fall … how I love thee!!

Ahhhh, but the promise of Winter … my favourite.

Yes, I know some have a problem with that. Perhaps I’m one of the strange ones.

I SOOOO love to ride my motorcycle. Sadly, I just don’t do very well with the crazy heat and humidity that goes hand in hand with the Summer months here, where I have lived almost all of my life.

Being a Butcher for 35+ years has messed up my internal thermometer. I used to DREAD going to work. “How in the WORLD am I going to stay warm for 8 hours ???” Crazy thing now, I LOVE it !!!

I ACTUALLY look FORWARD to spending the ENTIRE day in the COLD !!! Seriously!!!  I can work my butt off and NEVER break a sweat !! It’s BEAUTIFUL !!

Again, I digress …

Here’s the deal … I SOOOOO look forward to the cold and SNOW !!!

I want to be clear … I LOVE the change of seasons we are blessed with in this part of my beautiful country (Canada) and, I really wouldn’t have it any other way.  As much as I look forward to Spring, and the rebirth of everything green, I ALSO SOOOOOO look forward to the COLD, exhilarating slap of WINTER!!

I am a skier. I love all things out-of-doors, especially in the Winter. I guess that makes me a bit of a “Winter weirdo” and, let’s not forget … a FOODIE too!

For me, the Winter presents a WHOLE new experience for folks that just love to cut, cook, prepare, present and serve FOOD to appreciating people (mainly my Marital equivalent, family and friends). Comfort food to warm the heart and soul. Spicy chili’s, hearty stews and crock pot recipes that beg for a crackling fire, glass of wine and a big sweater.

Coming home today, as I drove up my long driveway, I was wondering “how am I going to impress my marital equivalent for dinner tonight ” and, … I’m SERIOUSLY drawing a TOTAL blank.

I put the key in the door, my beautiful four legged Princesses meet me as usual, and … dinner is gone. Out of my mind like the flush of a big Porcelain throne.

History. It’s play time and … Daddy’s home!!!

I usually give dinner serious thought during the day. Today however, I’m waffling between pulling nasty, last minute, got-no-time-for-anything-else, burgers or worse out of the freezer … OR, (wait for it …) the dreaded “Breakfast-for-dinner”!!! Fast n’ easy, bacon and eggs with toast (yum … so easy, … AND, sooooo good)

Sadly, my lovely spouse just doesn’t “GET” the whole “Breakfast-for-dinner” thing !!!

Back to the drawing board.

With the days growing colder, my opportunities to smoke (food, NOT tobacco or that other funny stuff!) are dwindling.  As the outside temperature drops I must add more and more time to my overall cook, since I use an old water smoker. One of these days I’ll invest in a Big Green Egg but, I digress, … again.

Back to dinner. I want to use my smoker tonight but, I haven’t presoaked any wood chips … or have I ???

This whole diatribe has been the reason for my Blog post today.

I have a ridiculously obvious and simple tip I actually fell into by accident to share.

Back in the summer, after  smoking some ribs for dinner, I was cleaning up and realized there was still half a bag of hickory chips soaking in my bucket. Not wanting to drain them, dry them and store them for next time, instead, I put them into a ziplock bag and stuck them in the freezer.

Waiting for wood chips or chunks to soak can be a pain (at least 30 minutes to 1 hour). If you’re eager to begin smoking food as I am tonight, the wood needs to soak before being added to the grill in order to maintain a slow smolder rather than a quick burn, which can impart an acrid taste to your meat.

In my freezer, I have pre-soaked, ready to use wood chips!! By the time I get the old smoker rockin’ , my chips will be thawed and ready to use!

Necessity is the Mother of Invention AND, the end result of many happy accidents around here !!

BTW, … the same tip is great for soaking bamboo skewers as well.  This is a must before grilling since soaking will help keep the wood from burning before the food is cooked.  You can even use frozen chips for your gas grill too.  Just place them inside a foil pouch with holes poked into it for ventilation and add them to your BBQ while cooking your favourite protein.

Chicken leg quarters, brined, smoked and finished in my little water smoker, served with foil wrapped potatoes and steamed, buttered broccoli.

Comfort food for a chilly night … ahhhh the crackling fire.

Honey? … can I pour you some wine ???

All is good.

Until next time Carnivores, stay hungry and as usual, please follow my posts on Twitter @DougieDee and like and share them on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/carnivoreconfidential

What a GRIND !! The PERFECT Ground Beef story.

Greetings Carnivores,

I’m often asked questions about Ground Beef. Which one makes the best burgers? What’s in it? Are there any fillers? Why is it dark on the inside? (please see my Carnivore Confidential post “How ’bout a little love” published 2013/02/06) What’s the fat to lean ratio?

Well, in order to answer those questions, I need to first tell you a little bit about Ground Beef, and how it’s made.

Years ago (and still, in certain boutique Butcher shops) you will see “Ground Chuck” “Ground Round” and Ground Sirloin”. More often than not now though, you will find the terms “Regular”, “Medium”, “Lean” and “Extra Lean” Ground Beef.

Technically speaking … a package “labeled” as “GROUND CHUCK”, cannot have anything but meat trimmings from the Chuck (Shoulder) area of the carcass. The same with “GROUND ROUND” coming from ONLY the Round (Hip) area, and so on with “GROUND SIRLOIN”

The reason ground beef today is generally marked as Regular, Medium, Lean and Extra Lean is because for the most part ALL the trimmings from all the different parts of the carcass are tossed into the same lugs. There will be a mixture of trim from the Shoulder, Hip, Sirloin as well as everything else such as the Brisket, Point, Flank, Neck and Shanks.

As you can see, it’s now a mixture of trim from all over the carcass and hence the name “Ground Beef”. The Regular, Medium, Lean and Extra Lean designations are arrived at by determining the fat content of each one.

In some cases, the store will mix their “house” trimmings with really lean tubes of Cryovaced Ground Beef from the slaughterhouse.

These Cryovaced tubes are usually 80/20 or 86/14 meaning 80% Lean and 20% fat … you get the picture.  They vary depending on the requirements of the meat department for example: during the day the “House Trim” is ground, then a determination is made on how many tubes are needed in order to make it fall within the “Fat Test Range” established by the store. If the package says “Lean Ground Beef no more that 15% fat” then you can reasonably assume a “Fat Test” has been performed, and the Ground Beef has tested “Less than 15%” which allows it to be called “Lean Ground Beef”.

Ok so, what makes the BEST hamburgers??

Well, this will vary from person to person BUT, … I can tell you MY personal favourite is a mixture of cuts beginning with BLADE EYES then, I like to add boneless SHORT RIBS and, BRISKET.

bigstock-Chuck-Steak-Top-View-25788383

BEHOLD!! The beautiful Blade (Chuck) Eye. Note: the marbling and fat … mmmmmm!

 

diagram

The Blade (Chuck) portion is a hard working Shoulder muscle used for support and mobility

The ratio of fat to lean plus, the benefit of lots of connective tissue and collagen makes this selection of cuts an EXCELLENT, if the not THE VERY BEST choice for ground beef.

The front shoulder is the area of the carcass I ALWAYS use when I’m making Ground Beef for anything … Meatloaf, Spaghetti sauce, Tacos and Burritos, especially BURGERS!!

AND … the ONLY thing that ALWAYS makes this Ground Beef better is … PORK FAT!

Yup,… just ask Emeril Lagasse!

emeril-bio2

When in doubt … add Pork fat!!

I ALWAYS add Pork fat when I grind my beef mixture … it makes (in my humble opinion) the very BEST Ground Beef, for ANY application you can find (excuse me while I wipe my chin).

Lastly, … I know there are a LOT of people who swear by the “Trinity”, Ground Beef, Ground Pork and Ground Veal.

And I say Hey, … live and let live.

For me … Ground Blade (chuck) eyes, Short ribs, Brisket and Pork fat makes the Angels sing and … why fix what ain’t broke!!

One final thought about the perfect Ground beef and, this is VERY important people.

GroundBeef

Keep it loose folks!!!

When making burgers (or anything, really) it’s vitally important NOT to overwork the meat before forming it into patties. Believe me folks, care needs to be taken here or you’ll end up disappointed.

Less is definitely more so PLEASE don’t ‘pack’ your patties … you’ll be rewarded with a much better ‘mouth feel’

Until next time Carnivores, stay hungry and as usual, please follow my posts on Twitter @DougieDee and like and share them on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/carnivoreconfidential

Don’t have a Smoker? You don’t need one !!

Greetings Carnivores,

I have written Blog posts about smoking, and the joy of eating food prepared this way but, I understand not everybody owns a smoker. Like I’ve said before, … smoking meat is a labour of love that takes HOURS and, I’m pretty sure not everybody shares my addiction. For me, it’s a bit of a passion. I read about it, watch it on the food network, and try endless recipes and methods in my smoker. I suffer TERRIBLE withdrawal when the weather turns cold because for every one degree drop in outside temperature I have to add 20 minutes to my overall cook time. Winter smoking (with my water smoker) is NOT very practical. I once put my very first electric (Little Chief) smoker in my living room fireplace, and smoked some ribs in the Winter. I wasn’t very popular at my house since the whole place smelled like a smokehouse for DAYS (I thought it was GREAT!!) My poor, long suffering Marital Equivalent didn’t share my enthusiasm however. Through it all though, … she  has endured all my successes AND even some epic fails.

Ok so, where am I going? Here’s the deal. YOU DON’T NEED A SMOKER!

Grilling with charcoal or briquettes is making a HUGE come back and, if you have one of these obviously you can cook/smoke with indirect heat, thus making your grill a wonderful ‘smoker’. BUT … for those of you who use gas grills, you can STILL achieve the same results.

I’m quite sure you’ve all heard about BBQ’ing Salmon on a Cedar plank. Have you ever tried it?  MAN … you’re missing out if you haven’t. But, … did you realize you can cook pretty much ANYTHING on a cedar plank??  The secret is … you have to use a THICKER plank for extended cooking time.

Seems pretty simple when you think about it but … the planks sold at any home improvement,  or big red box store (starts with a “C” and ends with an “O”) are fine for a nice Salmon filet since the total cook time ‘may’ be as much as 7 minutes but, probably no more that 12-13.

When using a plank for cooking, you must soak it for 20 minutes or so before placing it on the grill. Then, you get it rocking ’till it starts to ‘smoke’ (essentially it’s ‘starting’ to smolder) add your fish and … Bob’s your Uncle. 7 to 10 minutes later … NIRVANA!

The problem is … planks sold at the big box stores are EXPENSIVE! Sure, you get 6 or 8 of them in a pkg., BUT, they’re so thin you really only get (if you’re lucky) 15 minutes of cook time out of them before they REALLY start to burn so, they’re not much good for anything OTHER than fish.

Know what I do?

I go to the same home improvement store BUT … I buy a 10 foot, 1 x 6 cedar fence plank (for about 12 dollars) and cut it to any length I need, depending on what I’m cooking.

PLEASE, … DON’T BUY GREEN, PRESSURE TREATED FENCE LUMBER TO COOK ON … THEY’RE INFUSED WITH TOXIC STUFF TO INHIBIT INSECTS AND ROT!!

Ok so, since the 1 x 6 is SO much thicker than the cedar ‘wafers’ they sell FOR the BBQ … you can cook for MUCH longer. Back ribs for instance … cut the board to accommodate the length of the rack, weigh it down and soak it (use the laundry tub if it won’t fit in your kitchen sink) then, put it on the grill, get it rocking ’till it just starts to smolder (smoke),  add your ribs and Voila! Go pour yourself a nice Summer libation, take a chair (spray bottle at the ready) and enjoy the wonderful smells emanating from your BBQ!

Just so I’m clear … always keep a spray bottle of Apple juice handy (you can use plain old water but … where’s the adventure in that?). This serves double duty. First, it helps to keep whatever you’re cooking/smoking  moist (and sweet) and second, to quell any errant flames that ‘may’ want to caress the wood and burn your planked treasure.

Try your favourite Chicken preparation, Lamb, … you can even cook Burgers like this! The cook time will be much longer so please, make sure you use a good digital meat thermometer to insure the correct doneness … I don’t want any of you getting sick. 🙂

I like to transfer whatever I’m planking (except fish … it’ll fall apart) to the grill for some nice grill marks at the end of the cook … it just looks better.

There you have it Carnivores, now … get out there and smoke something. I love to read your comments and answer any questions you may have.

In the meantime, stay tuned and … please click “follow” at the top of the page (Carnivore Confidential). You’ll get an email notice every time I write something new.

Until then, stay hungry Carnivores and as usual, please follow my posts on Twitter @DougieDee and like and share them on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/carnivoreconfidential

Better with age?? The Wet vs Dry debate rages on …

Greetings Carnivores,

There has been a raging debate going on for years over which method of aging is superior: Wet vs Dry. It’s helpful to understand what happens during the process of aging so, I’m going to attempt to demystify the conflict for you because in the end … it’s going to come down to personal choice.

The truth is, the tenderness of all meat whether it’s Poultry, Pork, Lamb or Beef will improve to a certain degree, from ‘some’ aging. This is because immediately after the animal is slaughtered, natural enzymes begin the job of breaking the flesh down. Ashes to Ashes, Dust to Dust so to speak. The process is inevitable and unstoppable, unless the meat is frozen but, then we begin to deal with other issues. (I go through those ‘issues’ in an earlier post called “Did it just get chilly in here?”)

When I started in this business years ago, there was no other option for aging meat other than humidity controlled, dry aged hanging. Dry aging basically allows the meat to dehydrate while hanging, and the process of breaking down imparts this earthy, musty, old (Blue) cheese sort of funky flavour … a flavour sought after by the tastebuds of some of the most discerning Foodies and Chefs alike.

But, there’s nothing like progress. Around the time Cindy Lauper, Techno-pop, Men at Work and the Cars were making names for themselves, a new method to age meat, developed by the meat industry was becoming more and more popular too.

Advances in Plastics and the introduction of huge machines used to vacuum seal large primal cuts in the slaughterhouse, allowed the meat industry to totally exclude Oxygen. This radically retards the speed with which a piece of meat breaks down (ages) with almost no moisture loss. The meat still ages in the bag although … it’s different. The downside (there always seems to be a downside to something good) is Wet aged Beef has has lost it’s distinctly ‘earthy’ taste.

Less and less meat was sent to the stores ‘hanging’ because now they were able to break down the carcasses at the plant level, and ship the individual ‘Primals’ to the stores in cases. Profits soared. Can you imagine the dollar signs popping off in the heads of the big meat execs? They figured out how to drastically improve their bottom line by reducing weight loss due to dehydration and trimming.

You can still find Beef dry aged, and hung 21 (or better) days but you’ll pay a premium for it. The ‘Boutique’ shops will be your best place to start but, make sure to ask the Butcher if he is hanging the old dry way. A lot of places just don’t have the time or space needed to accurately ‘Dry’ age on their premises so … it really is becoming harder and harder to find.

If you live in the Toronto area I have to recommend an old friend of mine who runs a beautiful Boutique shop in downtown Oakville called Just an Olde Fashioned Butchery and Seafood. His name is Bill Rechter and he and I go back a LONG way. He actually has a Black and White photograph of the two of us hanging on the wall, working in his shop … taken when we both looked like little kids. Check him out and tell him I sent you.

So, there you have it … Cindy Lauper or the Cars. Wet or Dry … personal choice.

“till next time Carnivores, stay hungry.

Follow my posts on Twitter @DougieDee and like and share my stuff on Facebook. http://www.facebook.com/carnivoreconfidential

Marinating for tenderness and flavour ? The Sky’s the limit !!

Greetings Carnivores,

Anything can benefit from a marinade whether it’s Fish, Poultry, Beef, Chicken, Wild game, you name it. The reasons for marinating are many though. Marination will build in layers of flavour, add moisture and for tougher cuts, aid in the process of tenderizing. You must keep in mind the ‘Cut’ your using to determine how far you want to go with the process. Let me explain: some marinades have natural tenderizing enzymes like Pineapple and Papaya, others have acids like vinegar and citrus. In addition, an oil (your choice) and a selection of fresh herbs and spices will add to flavour building. There are TONS of recipes out there but, as long as you have the two basics: acid (or enzyme)  and an oil, you can pretty much add ANYTHING else you want to your marinade. Experiment, take notes and have fun with it!!

Remember, the thickness of the cut to be marinated determines how long it should be left in the liquid. For example: over marinating a delicate piece of fish will result in ‘cooking’ it.

Safety is a concern also: always marinate in the fridge so that any nasty bacteria has less than a fighting chance to ruin your day. And, NEVER use the left over marinade for a sauce or basting while cooking. You COULD use it for the basis for a sauce as long as it heated to kill anything harmful that may have been transferred from the raw product to the liquid but, I’m a big fan of reserving a portion of the liquid, untouched by the raw meat instead.

Home use Vacuum storage machines (I use mine ALL THE TIME) will actually ‘pull’ the marinade into the meat, and seriously cut down the amount of time needed to do the job with wonderful results.

One final thought on food safety regarding the ‘vessel’ you use to marinate your meat. I always use glass or plastic (food safe) rather than metal or pottery for marinating because, if there is lead in the vessel your using the acidic component of the liquid will, over time leach out. There are enough things out there waiting in the wings to harm us people, let’s at least control the things we can to keep us and the food we eat safe.

So there you have it, add moisture and flavour to any cut to take your meal to the next level.

Follow me on Twitter @DougieDee, ‘like’ me on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/carnivoreconfidential and please feel free to ‘share’ and re-tweet my posts.

Smoke ’em if ya got ’em

Greetings Carnivores,

Whether you’re smoking fish, poultry, beef, pork, lamb or even wild game, it’s important to “brine” the meat to be smoked first. This is an ancient secret that works with the meat, chemically bombarding the proteins with a supersaturated salt solution. This process renders the meat very susceptible to the curing/smoking process with DELICIOUS results.

2 CUPS of SEA SALT to every 2 GALLONS of fresh water in a bucket (4 dollars at Home Depot) mixed well. Submerse meat for up to 6 hours, remove and RINSE WELL (very important).

Smoke (low and slow) accordingly, … enjoy.

Until next time Carnivores stay hungry and as usual, please follow my posts on Twitter @DougieDee and like and share them on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/carnivoreconfidential